–       1.32 million people living with HIV in Zambia

–       82 000 people a year becoming infected (226 new infection a day).

–       For ever 2 new people on treatment, 5 new people become infected.

–       Higher rates for woman then men

–       Urban HIV rates are twice as high as rural areas




(Saved: downloads Zambia background) – Like most developing countries Zambia is characterized by an urban and rural demographic structure. The urban areas are relatively vibrant with access to basic infrastructure like telephones, electricity, and treated water. 



(Background info Zambia 2) ICT and development in Zambia: challenges and opportunities.

–       The Republic of Zambia is a landlocked country in Southern Africa, which has been independent since 1964.

–       14.3 million (July 2012 est) CIA Factbook: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/za.html

–       Zambia ranks 164 out of 182 countries in the UNHDP (2009).

–       Literacy runs at 85% and 90% of the adult population.


ICT in Zambia

–       Like other developing countries Zambia has tremendous upsurge in telephone ownership and use since the advent of mobile phones. The mobile phones have increased in usage. In 2003, 500 000 subscriptions and rose to over 3 million in 2008.

–       Landlines however remain limited and largely confined to urban areas.

–       State owned ZAMTEL has a monopoly over the countries international gateway, which allows phone connectivity to other countries.

–       Rapid growth in internet connections which grow from 50 000 to 500 000 subscriptions from 2006 to 2007, largely managed by private entrepreneurs or by NGOS, some with donor support.

–       Telecenters are popular in Zambia for access to internet usage. Elsewhere in Africa this as been difficult to establish a successful business model to ensure skilled maintence of technical equipment.

–       2009 new fibre optic cables were laid along the coast of East and Southern Africa. Which may lead to lower prices for international bandwidth. Zambia will benefit form this with improved national and regional fibre interconnection agreements and greater liberalization of the telecoms marketplace with the country.

–       When this article was written in 2010 National broadband and fibre optic networks were under construction. One by ZAMTEL the national telecom operator while separate networks are being builds by the countries power utility ZESCO and the Copperbelt Energy Company (CEC).

–       By 2009  some mobile phone users with higher specification phones were beginning to make sure of mobile internet access, which may provide a major new means online access in the future.

–       Lack of international communications infrastructure, particularly because of the fact that Zambia is landlocked.


ICT Policy

–       in 2001 Zambia’s government began to develop a national ICT policy, through extensive consultation process including academics and civil society organizations. The policy was finalized in 2005 and adopted in 2006.

–       The policy establishes a framework for future direction of ICTS and ICT4D within Zambia. Consultation with diverse stakeholders highlighted five priority areas: Human capacity development, agriculture, health, education and the development of ICT services.

–       ICT within health is to improve the quality of access to healthcare at the local level.

–       The main issue with this policy is the time it has taken to implement. While the policy had clear intentions during consultation a great deal of time has elapsed since they agreed on the terms.  Technology continues to change, particularly the use of mobile telephony.